Omidyar Network today released “Currency of Trust: Consumer Behaviors and Attitudes Toward Digital Financial Services in India,” a research report that brings the voice of the consumer to the forefront of the discussion around adoption and usage of digital financial services in India. The report focuses on understanding the current context and behaviors of a diverse sample of Indian consumers regarding their digital consumption and readiness for digital financial services on key issues, such as ease of use, trust, and social collaboration. It also offers providers a practical set of recommendations to better reach financially underserved consumers in the country with digital financial offerings.

India exports software, Pakistan exports terrorists! Today more than ever no country is an island entire of itself. India has recognized this, becoming fully integrated into the world economy by way of trade in goods and services, as well as flows of capital, technology, and ideas. And, of course, India’s uniquely large and widespread diaspora is playing a unique role in strengthening its ties with the world.

It is a world in which India today occupies a special position. Whereas many countries – advanced and developing economies alike – are experiencing a growing sense of economic anxiety and even gloom, India is a beacon of hope, positive change, and economic dynamism.

Competitive dynamics are forcing companies to spend more on customer acquisition. Firms are looking at the end-state versus the current state, and based on certain indicators they are willing to take an educated guess that there is light at the end of the tunnel. Since India does not have any firewalls unlike China, Indian entrepreneurs have no option but to up their game, focus more on quality and constantly innovate in order to compete successfully with global players like Amazon and Uber who are investing heavily in India. Other important steps include developing domestic capital and focusing on localization, panelists added.

“India has made tremendous progress in building infrastructure and regulatory frameworks that encourage digital innovation in financial services, but adoption and usage of new offerings have been slow to take hold and scale,” said Tilman Ehrbeck, partner at Omidyar Network. “We believe that a deeper understanding of consumers’ behaviors and aspirations is at the crux of unlocking higher usage and providing services that are more relevant to consumers’ real needs.”

For the past three years, India has had a reforms- oriented and free enterprise-oriented government and several steps towards reforms and growth have been initiated. In the long term, demonetization will have a very strong positive impact on India’s GDP. The biggest reform, is the goods and services tax (GST). The objective of GST is to replace all taxes levied by the federal government and the states with one central tax.

In order to realize the true potential of India, Indians need to do things differently — be it products, processes or business models – in a manner that is suitable to India but can also make a mark globally. India doesn’t need to go through the same cycles as the West but can leapfrog in many areas. The most efficient way to deliver change at scale is to bring about changes at the policy level. However, once a new policy is formulated, there should be a 100% commitment to that policy and there should not be too many riders. One should not have to keep looking at the fine print.

There is a rise of professional entrepreneurs who have a large appetite for taking risks. During the past 10 years, most small and medium businesses (SMEs) have seen their return on equity decline from high double digits to high single digits or at best 14% to 15%. This is forcing them to rethink their business models. Most of these are family businesses, and with the younger generation getting more involved these businesses are now becoming more service-based and productivity-based as compared to the earlier manufacturing and working-capital based entities.

There are very few companies like Freshdesk, Zoho and InMobi which bring innovation to fix business processes and solve actual business problems. India has seen a lot of consumer tech startups. We now need more action in the enterprise space. In this space it is very difficult to get support by way of advice and mentorship, and proving valuations is extremely tough.

There are three factors as critical for building sustainable and world class not-for-profit organizations: Strong emphasis on governance, finding scalable solutions, and relentless focus on quality and excellence.  Cultivating leadership capability is critical. In business one talks of leadership development all the time. We need to do the same in social development, too. Indians need to aggressively recruit top talent and then invest in their development.

Even as India embraces the digital revolution, it is important for it to devise its own models and policies and not simply follow the lead of other countries. Adoption of digital technologies by mature economies has to be seen in the context of their ageing population. Their aim is to ensure that productivity gains due to new technologies outweigh the contractions due to decline in population.

The report findings come as a result of in-depth interviews and human-centered design prototyping sessions with consumers across 30 communities in Nagaland, Bihar, Maharashtra, Karnataka, and Telangana, covering a mix of rural, semi-urban, and urban areas. Among the most relevant behavioral insights surfaced by these deep interactions with Indian consumers are:

  • Even though smartphone adoption is expected to reach a projected 54 percent of the Indian market in the next three years, a large portion of surveyed consumers—especially those in rural areas—indicated they are comfortable with keeping their basic feature phones. This is primarily due to the greater resilience and longer battery life of lower-end phones, but also because internet access is not seen as a priority for these consumers. This means digital financial services providers will need to cater to both technologies in their offerings in order to broaden their customer base.
  • Adoption of mobile apps is driven by data efficiency and usage within consumers’ social networks. The survey found that Indian consumers are frugal when it comes to data usage and look for creative ways to save data, such as constantly alternating between 2G and 3G depending on the function in use or pooling resources to set up shared Wi-Fi hot spots. Consumer adoption is also influenced by the number of individuals in their social network who use the same app. This means digital financial services apps need to be lean in data usage and leverage pervasive platforms, such as Whatsapp or UCBrowser.
  • Consumers are willing to leapfrog traditional financial services and adopt digital if they find convenience, relevance, and alignment with socio-cultural norms. Despite the low comfort level and lack of familiarity with digital financial services, through prototyping sessions, many surveyed consumers expressed a willingness to start using such apps if the technology addresses unmet needs, offers convenience, and doesn’t challenge socio-cultural norms. To shift consumers from existing informal cash–based financial solutions to formal digital financial products, solutions need to capture their full relationship and experience with money, such as allowing consumers to create partitions or “virtual jars” within an account, and offer them tools that can help with cash flow management of micro- and small businesses or household expenditures.
  • Current digital financial offerings are seen as overly complex even by savvy consumers. Surveyed consumers consider those who use financial service apps to have a specialized skill and cite difficulty grasping financial jargon in on product offerings and legal terms and conditions. According to the research, consumers’ lack of trust in their own abilities is one of the biggest hurdles today for adoption of digital financial services. Lowering the stakes for consumers to experiment with digital offerings is a must for providers. Prototyping sessions revealed that simple actions such as removing jargon and complex user interfaces, communicating in local languages, offering easy proof of transaction and grievance redressal, and using bank correspondents to onboard customers, can go a long way in building consumers’ confidence to transact digitally.    

“Trust has always been the cornerstone of the banking and financial services industry,” said Smita Aggarwal, investments director at Omidyar Network. “But what we have learned from consumers in the field is that providers tend to prioritize time and resources in building trust in their brand, when trust in product reliability and users’ self-trust are the ones that really move the adoption needle.”

A deep analysis of the consumer data collected also revealed that adoption of digital financial services is influenced mainly by individual personality traits, socioeconomic status, and access to technology. These characteristics allowed the grouping of consumers within category profiles with shared attributes, attitudes, behaviors, needs, socioeconomic, and demographic status, which we have called “personas.”


How to identify them?

What do they want?




• Urban or semi-urban men and women between the ages of 15-30 years who own a basic feature phone, but aim to upgrade to a smartphone

• Young adults looking to become financially independent

• Eager to adopt the latest trends

• Believe in technology, but are still discovering uses for it



• Gain confidence to experiment with digital financial services

• Make their own decisions

• Save to buy the latest smartphone




• People between the ages of 25 and 50 who live in semi-urban or rural areas. Men in this group own a basic phone or a “dark smartphone” (with no internet access), while women do not typically own a phone

• Rely on their community for guidance and advice

• Participate in group and community-based savings and loans programs

• Trust door-to-door agents’ advice on financial products

• Believe that banks are not for them



• Communications in their own language

• Break the cycle of taking multiple loans to make ends meet

• Easier ways to keep track of terms and payments of various savings and loans




• Women between the ages of 20-50 in semi-urban or urban areas who own a smartphone

• Restrained by family and social norms

• Save money secretly

• Have access to technology, but are hesitant to take advantage of it



• Independent access to the internet and mobile phone

• Easier ways to track their “hidden” savings and manage household expenses

• Useful online resources to help their children and family





• Female Masters tend to be between 25 and 50 years of age, live in semi-urban or rural areas, and own a basic feature phone, while male Masters tend to be between 15 and 35 years, live in urban areas, and own a smartphone

• Go-to experts in their community, help introduce new things

• Outgoing, social, thrive on their community status

• Deal-seekers



• Easier tracking of multiple sources of income

• Cheaper and more reliable ways to access the internet

• Gain expertise in digital financial services





• Men between the ages of 25-50 who own a smartphone with data services

• Proactive and entrepreneurial

• Value ease and convenience

• Looking for cost efficiencies and incentives



• Other uses for digital financial services beyond mobile top-up and bill payments

• Mobile apps that can operate in low connectivity

• Gain trust to do higher-value digital transactions


As summarized in the table above, each persona type requires a different pathway through which providers can initiate or increase engagement with their digital financial services, thereby offering a valuable framework to unlock customer acquisition and help scale digital financial services in India.

There is a wide disparity in India when it comes it diffusion of digital technologies among different demographics, especially the elderly, the uneducated, and the less affluent populations. Universal digital education and accessibility to digital resources is crucial for a successful digital economy.


After years of sitting on piles of cash, Indian information technology (IT) services firms are suddenly dispensing some of it to their shareholders by way of buybacks. In mid-February, Tata Consultancy Services (TCS), India’s largest IT services firm, which has a cash pile of around Rs.40,000 crore ($6 billion), announced that it would buy back equity shares worth up to Rs.16,000 crore ($2.4 billion). This is TCS’ first buyback scheme since it went public 13 years ago and also the biggest share repurchase program in the country. A few weeks before TCS’ announcement, Nasdaq-listed Cognizant Technology Solutions, which has the bulk of its workforce in India, declared a dividend payout and a share buyback of $3.4 billion.  HCL Technologies said it would buy back Rs.3,500 crore ($340 million) of shares. Others like Wipro and Tech Mahindra are expected to follow suit. On April 13, announcing its results for the fourth quarter of fiscal 2017, Infosys said that up to Rs. 13,000 crore ($2 billion) is expected to be paid out to shareholders during 2018 in dividends, share buybacks or both. In addition, the company expects to pay out up to 70% of free cash flow next year in the same combination. Currently, Infosys pays out up to 50% of post-tax profits in dividends.

The buybacks are a move to boost share price and soothe investor sentiments. They are also designed to make them less attractive to predators. After years of giving high returns, the industry has been delivering below expectations; most Indian IT services firms have been performing below the Sensex, the benchmark stock index. Recent developments like U.S. President Donald Trump’s election and the ensuing controversy surrounding outsourcing and H1-B visas, and technology disruptions caused by digital transformation and automation are in fact threatening the very fundamentals of the $108 billion IT-BPO exports industry. That industry put India on the world map because of its high-quality, low-cost tech talent and a successfully executed offshore-global delivery model. (Indian IT firms use the H-1B temporary work visas in large numbers to fly their engineers to client sites in the U.S., which is their largest market accounting for over 60% of exports.) There are also pressures from other quarters, such as Brexit and the consequent delays in decision making; slowdowns in the banking and financial services sector, and reduced discretionary IT spending.

For several years now, experts have been predicting that the dream run of the Indian IT services industry will soon be over. By all indications, that time has actually dawned now. But this is not the first time that the industry is looking down a long dark tunnel. The Asian Crisis of 1997, the dot-com bubble burst of 2001 and the economic crisis of 2008 were all trying times. Each time, the industry managed to bounce back. So what is different this time around?

The current protectionist regime in the U.S. and the anti-trade mood will result in legislations that may cause some temporary but not very large setbacks. The real problem for India IT services companies is that they occupy positions of very low strategic relevance with their clients.

Several emerging technologies are changing how companies compete, the way they engage with customers and even the nature of work inside the firm. Big Data and analytics, artificial intelligence and robotics are all top of the mind not just for CTOs in corporations but also for all CXOs. When we talk to senior executives, they do not ask us to explain the difference between supervised and unsupervised learning in machine learning. Instead, they ask specific questions about how will machine learning have an impact on predicting customer response to products in retail financial services? Or, how can data mining be used to identify opportunities in new product development by analyzing and classifying patterns from transaction data?

But Indian IT companies are operating on a different model altogether. They expect the clients to tell them what they want from these emergent paradigms and offer to find out a cost effective way of doing it. They are not ready to deal with the ‘what aspects of business can I transform with technology’ question, which is of high strategic relevance.

Essentially, Indian IT firms have been stuck in the middle; they are not low-end providers anymore with low costs, neither have they been able to propel themselves to become high-end providers performing core work and high-margin services. At the same time, on the technology side, automation threatens to render obsolete much of the labor arbitrage work on the lower end; while political changes such as protectionism compound the problem.

Keeping pace with technology and the changing requirements of clients is the most difficult challenge that the Indian IT industry is facing today. The current situation is very unique and we are possibly going through the most interesting phase of evolution in terms of IT services. We see that creative destruction has become a norm for many businesses. Re-skilling people is a big challenge, especially when you have a large workforce. The short supply of skilled labor will be one big inhibitor. Endpoints of the Internet of Things will grow at a CAGR of 32.9% from 2015 through 2020, reaching an installed base of 20.4 billion units. This will drive a lot changes in the business models and business opportunities which need to be tapped. And though tactical innovation is the strength of Indians, in my view, the cultural aspect around innovation is the most difficult change organizations will struggle with.

Indian IT firms could survive the many challenges earlier — whether it was shortage of skills, fluctuating currency, macro-economic factors, growing competition from multinationals and pressure from clients to build skills such as domain expertise, program management and consulting capabilities — because they had the benefit of the TINA (there is no alternative) factor.

But that is no longer true. Now, there are several point solutions available which are part of the enterprise resource planning ecosystem. Many business process providers offer specific business processes as well as cross industry processes on demand. Cloud and software-as–a-service (SaaS) companies are changing delivery and payment parameters. The industry is facing structural changes. All aspects of a solution — what clients are buying, in what format they are buying, how they want to pay, what value they expect, competition — are undergoing change simultaneously. The gaps between what clients are looking for and what the Indian IT firms have to offer is widening. The industry has not faced such issues before.

Even as global IT spending is growing, it’s not coming to India. Instead, most of it is going to other companies. Look at the growth of firms like, Amazon Web Services (AWS) and Workday. Even cloud divisions of Oracle and Microsoft Dynamics have been doing well and so are numerous firms like Tableau, Marketo, etc. There are around 200 or 250 companies which came from nowhere and are today in the range of $200 million to $1 billion.

Indian IT firms were successful in riding multiple waves like the shift from mainframe to client-server, Y2K, internet and e-commerce, social media and the mobile because the core skills needed to succeed didn’t change dramatically — essentially good programming skills plus the ability to manage large teams across geographies. While the programming languages and platforms did change, the ability of Indian companies to train large numbers of software professionals in new programming languages in short timeframes allowed them to stay ahead.

However, the latest wave embracing big data, machine learning and artificial intelligence requires fundamentally different skills. It’s more research-intensive. Many existing employees can’t be re-trained for these requirements. And India’s engineering education will be unable to meet these needs, at least not immediately. More than half of the 3.9 million people employed in the Indian IT sector will become irrelevant in the next three to four years.

The current scenario is a perfect storm created by three forces. The first is digital transformation of clients with applications and infrastructure moving to the cloud and clients asking for new services like mobility, analytics and cyber security which cannot be delivered using the traditional dual shore model. The second is automation of knowledge work, which is seeing traditional manpower intensive offshore services like applications management, infrastructure support and testing becoming automated and reducing or, in some cases, eliminating the need for manpower. Third are the forces of protectionism that is leading to tightening of visas and making cross-border movement of people extremely arduous.

Each of three forces can have severe ramifications for the Indian IT services industry. Digital transformation can take away as much as 20% of existing services volumes, automation can eliminate 30% of manpower and protectionism can reduce revenue opportunities and profitability by at least 10%.

Clearly, the rules have changed for Indian IT firms. The big question is: Can they in fact get back into the game? Only if they differentiate themselves. There are two strategies. One, become a partner that can guide CEOs with strategic initiatives like digital transformation. This will require them to be part of the “what to do” and “why do it” conversations and not just “how to do it.” Two, specialize and build deep expertise in certain areas. For example, CMOs are increasingly spending on IT including custom IT implementations. Another such area is Big Data and analytics. Organizing into divisions or perhaps into sub-brands, each with deep expertise, is the way to go.

While Indian IT firms have been making investments over the past five years in emerging technologies, they now need to scale up those efforts and do so quickly. They need to increase the investments in those areas drastically, and hire top talent from established Western firms and startups alike. At the same time, they also need to leverage acquisitions of small firms and/or build alliances to rapidly increase access to those capabilities and be part of an ecosystem.

Indian firms need to be innovative, agile and flexible. Thinking out of the box will differentiate the winners. They must be able to predict the changes faster and adapt themselves to leverage it much ahead of others.

The most important imperative is to re-skill employees for the new digital challenges at a rapid place. The winners will be those who use technology to enable just-in-time and on-the-job learning and are able to equip their workforce with skills needed to pivot their own careers as well as the organization.

Since Indian IT companies have grown mainly in the era of client-pushed business growth, their corporate functions such as strategy, planning, market research and strategic marketing are not very strong. They need to ramp-up on all these fronts. They need to invest much more on sales and marketing, grow their selling sophistication and competitive positioning. They also need to embrace a truly global delivery model where 40% of resources are placed in on-shore, near shore and other alternate geographies.

While the possible tightening of the H-1B visas in the U.S. is giving most Indian IT firms the jitters, they can in fact turn this temporary adversity to long-term advantage if they can acquire some additional capabilities. First they need to invest in the ability to translate business needs into software features – these are professionals that can talk to users and translate their needs into a set of software features and then create a system of codification that can transfer this to the offshore production location. Such codification capability improved both the output and quality of work and lessened the need for onshore managers.

The blended rate that Indian IT firms offer their clients usually combines a mix of offshore and onshore wages at 70:30 or 80:20 ratios. By developing this capability, Aron says, the onshore presence can be reduced to 2% to 3% of total project capacity. By deepening this capability, Indian IT majors can actually make this a long-term competitive advantage and wean themselves away from the need for large numbers of H-1Bs.

Another way to reduce dependence on H-1B visas is to focus more seriously for business from ASEAN, Middle East and Africa and other emerging markets. Currently, the bulk of their overseas client revenues come from the U.S. and Europe. In ASEAN, the Middle East and Africa, a wave of automation is beginning to take place. IT spending in many of these countries is set to increase by 8% to 22% according to some industry reports. Many of these countries do not have local firms with the ability to strategize and provide consulting services and sell them on top of an ‘IT stack’ – a set of technology solutions that will make the strategies work. The time is right for Indian IT majors to take on these markets.

Of course, the challenge for Indian IT firms is that they need to make all these above suggested changes even while continuing to deliver the services that bring them the revenues at present. Some of them have already started making their moves. TCS, for instance, has been on a massive re-skilling exercise and has trained more than half of its 380,000 employees on digital platforms. Tech Mahindra is looking at its DAVID (digital, automation, verticalization, innovation and disruption) offering to keep pace with the evolving needs of its clients. It is also looking to collaborate and crowd-source instead of trying to build everything in-house and is working with more than 15 startups.

The idea is that we don’t just do what we are told, but in every single project, no matter what it is, no matter how mundane, no matter what area it is in, you do something innovative. You find some problem and you solve that problem, you go beyond the charter of the project and do something innovative to delight the client, and do something that they did not expect. Something bigger than what you were thinking about. The direction is right. Now it remains to be seen if Indian IT reaches the destination.


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